The Woolen Industry makes varieties of cloth with different types of wool. By using long fibers of Merinos, worsted clothes are produced. Tweed, Blankets, Flannel are produced by using short fibers called woolen clothes. Shoddy clothes are made by mixing some new with the old cloth.
Uses of Wool
Wool as a raw material is impure and highly variable fiber and is sold in the form of fleece wool, clipped from the sheep. After arriving in the mill, the wool undergoes a cleaning process that shrinks its weight by one-third or even up to two-third-dirt and grease is removed from raw wool. After cleaning, spinning, weaving and fill finishing is done.
Most of the natural fibers utilized for modern textiles are the very ones used in the far-distance past, near about 1700 B.C. For many centuries the making of textiles was an important handy craft and household industry. After the industrial revolution, machine fabrication changed the ages-old household art into both an art and a science.
The wool production manufacturing industry is perhaps older than cotton textile industry. People of high and middle latitudes early recognized the virtues of wool in their cold milieus: because of its long fibers covered with barbs, which could preserve heat and absorb moisture.
Factors for the Development Wool Textile Industry
The physical and Socio-Economic factors are responsible for the location and development of the textile industry.
The Initial Factors
- Raw material
- Energy resources
- Water availability
- Availability of Market
- Location Factor
- Sufficient amount of Capital
- Skill Labour Force
- Government Patronage
- Government Policy for Industrial Development
- Means of Transportation
- Industrial Solid Waste Management
- Availability of latest Technology
On the basis of quantity, the woolen industry is limited and distributed only at specific places of Europe, North America, and North-East and Southern Asia. Modern woolen industry developed in Central Europe and after the Industrial Revolution, it was revolutionized in the United Kingdom. Then it spread in European countries and North America and Asian countries. Following are some countries prominent in the woolen industry.
Top 10 Wool Production Industry by Country
1: China Wool Industry
After Revolution 1949, wool manufacturing was largely replaced by machine industry. Today, China ranks first in manufacturing in the world.
Harsh climate and population have created a large local market. China produces large quantities of woolen, worsted, hosiery, and blankets for home and international market. Machine carpet manufacturing is also one of the largest industry in China. Shanghai and Canton are major wool manufacturing centers in China.
Japan secures the second position in the production of wool yarn and fabrics in the world. Due to scarcity, large population, harsh climate and high standard of living have created a large local market. Japan’s rapid growth of woolen fabrics dominated the world market; Woolen industry is one of the major manufacturing industries in Japan. The major wool producing centers are located within Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kobe-Osaka and Himeji, and Nagasaki etc.
3: Great Britain (U.K.)
The U.K. pioneered in the production of woolen ‘goods, it developed as early as 13th century and the United Kingdom dominated in woolen textile for 700 years, from the 12th century to 19th century.
The Industrial Revolution had a profound effect on the geography of the industry. The West Riding of Yorkshire has about 85% of Britain’s woolen operatives.
The chief centers are Bradford, Huddersfield, and Leeds. Other areas of manufacturing are the Tweed Valley of Scotland, Lancashire, and south-east England.
In the United States, manufacturing of woolen goods started as a cottage industry and, after the Industrial Revolution, New England became the production region of woolen goods. Boston became the capital of the wool trade. United States import quality wool from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Uruguay, and Argentina.
Wool manufacturing became identified with such cities as Providence and Woonsocket in Rhode Island and Lawrence, Lowell, and Holyoke in Massachusetts cities. Now southern states of Carolina, Georgia, and Florida also produce a significant amount of woolen goods.
5: Russian Federation
Russian woolen industry was located in Moscow and Leningrad, while Black Earth Centre and Central Volga region also produce the course, woolen products. After the Second World War, the woolen industry was shifted at wool producing region Central Asian states of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
After the independence of Central Asian States in 1991, Russian Federation imports wool from these states and the Moscow region has become the main center for wool manufacturing.
6: Wool Production in India
Woolen manufacturing was the age-old cottage industry in northwestern states of India, particularly valley of Kashmir are notable. While the first modern woolen textile mill was established in 1876 at Kanpur.
Punjab, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are foremost producers of woolen goods in India, they account for 73% of the total spindle-age capacity. While Gujrat, Karnataka, West Bengal, and Jammu & Kashmir are next in importance.
Punjab is leading in woolen industry, Dariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana, and Kharar are main centers.
Germany is an important country in woolen manufacturing. Germany produces fine wool but does not meet the need of local woolen industry. Therefore, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and Argentina fulfill its wool needs.
In Germany, most of the woolen mills are located at Saxony, Westphalia and Ruhr region. Barmen, Elberfeld, and Aachen are famous for woolen goods manufacturing.
France is an important industrial country in the world and it has established a large woolen industry. France lacks in the woolen raw material. It fulfills its 80% wool needs by importing wool from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Argentina.
Rhine and science valley industrial region is famous for the woolen industry in Paris and Strasburg are center for woolen manufacturing.
Geography & Physical features are very good. The first modern woolen textile mill was established at Karachi in 1947, named Valika Woolen Mills. At present, more than 30 woolen mills are manufacturing woolen, cloth, knitwear, blankets and other goods for local and international market. Transportation is improved & still growing. They have the fastest deliveries.
Pakistan is blessed with crops and forests. Farmers grow a different plant in different areas and transported to other parts where the woolen textile industry is located at Karachi, Lawrencepur, Harnai, Bannu, Sheikhpura, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi, Quad Abad, D.I. Khan and Jhang etc. Pakistan lacks quality and imports from Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Other Countries of the World
These countries, Canada, Italy, Spain, Poland, Belgium, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, Iran, are main countries in woolen textile manufacturing.