The physiography of Pakistan is very unique and has a diverse landscape all over the country, with a very distinctly climate in the whole country. Due to these reasons, the physiography of Pakistan is divided according to soil classification.
The type of soil formed is a function of topography, climate, vegetation, and the parent rock from which the soil material is derived.
Soil texture varies with the size of the soil particles. Coarse-textured soils are sandy, fine-textured soils are clayey, and a mixture of sand and clay is called loam. Soils of high organic content are darker in color and have more nutrients for plant growth than those of low organic content. Since most of Pakistan is arid or semi-arid, the soils contain little organic matter.
Soil-forming processes are complex and continuous. As a result, soils vary in their chemical composition, color, texture, and organic content from place to place. The discussion describes only the major Ecological zones of Pakistan.
Pakistan’s Ecological Zones
Pakistan has divided into Major Nine Ecological Zones
1: Northern Mountains Regions
2: Western Mountains Regions
3: Potwar Plateau
4: Sandy Deserts
5: Piedmont Plains
6: Old River Terraces
7: Sub-Recent River Plains
8: Recent River Plains
9: Indus Delta
|Sr.No||Name of Zone||Geographical Coverage||Soil Types||Major Crops|
|Clayey and Silty|
|Rice, Pulses, Sugarcane, Berseem, Banana|
|Southern Irrigated Plains|
|Hyderabad, Sanghar, Dadu, Khairpur, Larkana, Sukkur, R.Y. Khan, Shikarpur, Jacobabad|
|Calcareous, Loamy, Silty, Clayey and Sandy|
|Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Mustard, Sorghum, Berseem|
|Sandy Desert (a)|
|Tharparkar, Nawabshah, Bahawalpur, NoderoFeroz, Mirpur Khas, Cholistan|
|Sandy, Clayey and Loamy|
|Guar, Millet, Wheat, Castor|
|Sandy Desert (b)|
|Muzaffaragarh, Layyah, Sargodha, Khushab|
|Calcareous, Sandy, Loamy|
|Gram, Wheat, Cotton, Guar, Sugarcane, Millet|
|Northern Irrigated Plains (a)|
|Bahawalnagar, Multan, Khanewal,, Lodhran, Vehari, Sahiwal, Pakpattan, Okara, Lahore, Kasure, T.T.Singh, Faisalabad, Jhang, Sheikhpura, Gujranwala, Hafizabad|
|Sandy, Clayey, Calcareous, Silt-loam|
|Wheat, Cotton, Millet, Sugarcane, Maize, Berseem, Citrus, Mango, Melons, Oilseeds|
|Northern Irrigated Plains(b)|
|Peshawar, Mardan, Charsadda, Nowshera, Swabi|
|Clayey, Moderately Calcareous|
|Sugarcane, Maize, Gram, Tobacco, Wheat, Millet, Berseem, Groundnut, Sugar beet, Pears, Plum|
|Bannu, Mianwali, Attock, Rawalpindi, Jehlum, Gujrat, Sialkot, Mandi Baha-ud-din, Lakki Marwat, Islamabad, Bhakkar, Chakwal, Narowal|
|Silt loam, Silty clay loam, Clay loam|
|Wheat, Millet, Maize, Rice, Oilseeds, Pulses, Fodder crops|
|Abbottabad, Hazara, Mansehra, Kohistan, Haripur, Battagram|
|Silt loam, Silty clays|
|Maize, Rice, Wheat, Apples|
|Northern Dry Mountains|
|Chitral, Dir (Lower and Upper), Swat, Malakand, FATA, Bunair|
|Clayey, non-Calcareous and acidic (above 2100 altitude) Calcareous at a lower altitude|
|Maize, Wheat, Rice|
|Western Dry Mountains|
|Kohat, Karak, Tank, Zhob, Loralai,Kalat, Sibbi, Quetta, Kachhi, Pishin, Killa Abdullah, Nasirabad, Kohlu, Bolan, Tambo, Jaffarabad, Jhal Magsi, Musa khail, Burkhan, Ziarat, Kila Saifullah, DeraBugti, Mastung|
|Wheat, Maize, Apples, Peaches, Plums, Apricots, Grapes|
|Dry Western Plateau|
|Kharan, Awaran, Chagai, Lasbella, Karachi, Mekran, Turbat, Khuzdar, Gwadar, Panjgor|
|Strongly Calcareous, Silt loams|
|Wheat, Sorghum, Millet, Melons|
|D.I. Khan, D.G.Khan, Rajanpur|
|Loamy, Clayey, Strongly Calcareous|
|Wheat, Sorghum, Millet, Gram, Mustard, Rice|
The Role of Soil Classification in Agriculture Development
The soil classifies for getting the better result from Pakistan’s agriculture and soil classification identifies the soil category of area features, climatic conditions and types of soil and after classification divided the areas according to soil categories.
Every kind of crop, vegetation, trees, and forests depend up the soil Material. These are cultivated according to the present soil Material for getting a better output of any kind of crops.
Benefits of Soil Classification as All these information can help in the progress of agriculture departments
- In soil classification, we collect data on all soil properties and its help in soil Management and its use for specific purposes.
- We can determine the nutrient requirements for crops with the help of soil properties.
- Soil classifications provide information about soil resources and its use for Pakistani agricultural planning and development.
- Through soil classification, we can get detail about a huge area, which is suitable for agriculture or for industries.
- Soil classifications provide information about the sandy Mountainous areas of Pakistan, that these are not suitable for agriculture on a national level.
- Changa Manga forest totally depends upon the soil because the soil of that area is favorable for the forest. Changa Manga and other forests collectively have the prominent share of agriculture in GDP of Pakistan.
- The government can determine the ways of progress in agriculture through soil classification in agriculture if they use the right place for agriculture.
- A place is not suitable for every kind of agriculture, because different places have different types of soil. By using the soil classification, we can determine the exit place for exit crop.
- Planning for soil and water resources can be determined by the soil classification.
The former can maintain the required level of soil and can improve the yield of their crops if they use their land according to soil classification.