The Word Cotton comes from the Arabic word “al-qutn” is a member of the malvaceae family of flowering plants that includes hibiscus, pavonia and mallow plants. It is a white fibrous agricultural product; its an example of primary economic activity that has a wide variety of uses, from textile production, to creating paper, to producing oil and food products. Grown all around the globe, and is traded internationally as well the international trade in cotton is led by the United States and the African nations, and totals more than $12 billion annually.
There are many types of industries in the world but the Cottage industry is very famous at the local and international level. The cottage industry is an industry, mainly manufacturing, which involves many producers working part times from their homes. The term was initially used to refer to workers who were engaged in tasks like lace making, sewing or household manufacturing.
The cultivation appears to have begun in present-day Pakistan approximately 6,000 years ago. The Harappa civilization of the Indus River Valley exported cotton fabrics to the early Semitic peoples of the Middle East as well as the Egyptians starting around 3000 B.C.E.; from there, made its way into Nubia, Meroe and the interior of Africa.
Similar cultivation apparently took place in the Americas independently, albeit later: the ancient Peruvian Moche and Nazca civilizations, which flourished as Rome was declining in Europe, made extensive use of cotton fabric.
FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
These physical and Socio-Economic factors are responsible for the location and development..
The initial factors such as
- Raw material
- Energy resources
- Water availability
- Availability of Market 6: Location Factor
- Sufficient amount of Capital
- Skill Labour Force
- Government Patronage
- Government Policy for Industrial Development
- Means of Transportation
- Industrial Solid waste Management
Regional Types of Cotton
More specifically, cotton is classified with a genus of tropical and subtropical shrubs known as Gossypium.
There four commercial species of cotton, the most common are:
- Gossypium Hirsutum, (A variety native to Mesoamerica, Mexico, Florida and the Caribbean)
- Arboreum or “tree cotton,” (It growing in India and Pakistan)
- Barbadebse or “Creole,” or “Egyptian” cotton, (A South American variety)
- Herbaceum or “Levantine” cotton (Native to southern Africa and the Middle East)
IMPORTANT COTTON TEXTILE MANUFACTURING COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
Although cotton textile industry is widespread, but only 40 countries manufacture at large scale and export it in the international market. Among these countries, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, United States, Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippine, Syria, Thailand and Turkey are most important in cotton textile manufacturing. The leading countries are
China targets textiles after being highest fishing exporter in world. textile manufacturing is one of the oldest cottage industries in China. Industrial development took place after the Communist Revolution 1949. Now the large enterprises are the backbone of Chinese cotton textile industry.
The Yangtze River valley, Tienshan, Shantung, Shanghai and Kaiteng rectangle manufacture more than 55% cotton textile of China.
The cotton textile was most firmly rooted in India before the modern machine industry beginning in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Calcutta but real success was first mill established at Bombay in 1851.
Maharashtra and Gujrat states are equipped with 104 textile mills and contribute 40% output.
3: United States
The United States is one of the front runners among manufacturing countries. The first cotton textile mill was established within Rhode Island in 1790.
The belt of plains and hills between the Appalachian Mountains and Atlantic possesses 85% cotton spindles and produces 75% of U.S.
4: Russian Federation
Russia is an important cotton textile manufacturing country in the world. Before Revolution, first mill was established at Ivanove, near Moscow.
5: United Kingdom
Manufacturing started in U.K. after industrial revolution. During 18th and 19th centuries, industry attained such a high fame that the country became the undisputed king of the cotton textile industry.
The Lancashire alone produces 90% of U.K..
First cotton textile mill was established in 1868 in the vicinity of South Kyushu. By the middle of 20th century, Japan became one of the largest producing nation. Japan import raw material from U.S.A., China and India.
Cotton textile industry began in Brazil in 1860 at Bahia and cotton growing region. Abdunt raw material, large domestic market and cheap hydel powder has boasted in Brazil.
Cotton industry could be termed as the ‘backbone’ of Pakistan’s economy. It is largest and greatest source of foreign exchange earnings. The spinning sector is one of the most important sectors. After independence, first Valika Cotton Textile Mill was established at Karachi in 1948. Karachi is now center of industry, while Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Sheikhpura, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Okara, Khairpur, Jhang and Gujranwala are other cotton textile manufacturing centers.
It is composed of more than 444 textile mills and with installed capacity of 146 thousand rotors and 8.6 million spindles.
Other Countries of the World
Mexico, Egypt, Germany, France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Iran, South Korea, Thailand and Turkey are some other prominent countries in cotton textile industry.
China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, U.S.A. are most important countries, which export cotton textile and ready made garments.