Today rice crop is being cultivated in 115 countries of the world. China ranks first in Rice Producing among all production countries with about 30% of global rice production. The continent of Asia produce more than 90% of the world, and it is a significant crop in more than 50 countries. About 96% production is consumed in countries they grow.
Rice is usually considered a tropical crop. However, it is grown throughout the temperate zones, from latitude 50°N in China to 35°S in South America. Rice yields generally higher in temperate than in the tropics.
World’s total area was 156.95 million hectares, while total production was 651.74 million metric tons. Recent Study
The continent of Asia ranks first in production in the world and 29 countries grow. In the continent of Africa, 39 countries cultivate and it ranks second in rice production. In the Western hemisphere, the continent of South America ranks third in rice production. In the world, two major species: Asian rice and African rice are grown. About 50,000 varieties exist within these two species and only a few hundred of which are cultivated.
Rice is the primary food for half of the people in the world and tropical and monsoon regions. Cultivation originated as early as 10,000 B.C. in Asia. As early as 4000 B.C, it was grown in Thailand and over the countries spread to China, Japan, and Indonesia.
Later its cultivation moved to Middle East, Africa, and Europe. It was cultivated in the Euphrates valley in 400 B.C. and Mediterranean countries around 330 B.C. Its cultivation in the American Colonies began in 1685, at the commercial level.
Uses of Rice | Importance of Rice
Rice is a nutritious food, providing about 90% of calories from carbohydrates and as much as 13% of calories from protein. It is used for a variety of food and non-food products. Food includes cooked rice, breakfast cereals, desserts, and rice flour.
Also used in beer. Its hull is used as fuel, fertilizer, and insulation, while the bran is a source of cooking oil. Straw from the leaves and stems is used as bedding for animals and for weaving roofs, hats, baskets and sandals. Rice bran is used in livestock and poultry feed. Rice straw makes a good rough feed for cattle and used for fuel and mulch and papermaking. Rice starch is the basis for most face powders.
Types of Rice
Asia is considered the homeland for the maximum varieties of this staple food. It has more varieties than other cultivators around the globe and the most famous and most liked types of rice in the world are as under:
Names of Rice in World
Although, there are thousands of varieties of rice, can broadly be classified as:
Plain or Paddy Rice
Paddy rice is grown in densely populated lands and required a large quantity of water. Paddy rice fed by rainfall alone accounts for about 50% of grown worldwide. Though irrigation and rainfall fulfill the water requirements of the rice crop and provide about 35% of rice produced.
Plateau or Mountainous Rice
Plateau or Mountainous rice is grown at high altitudes and hill shapes in heavy rainfall regions. It is less productive than paddy rice because paddy waters are the storehouse of nutrients. Upland rice accounts for about 15% rice production in the world.
Physical & Economic Factor affecting Rice Farming
Following Physical conditions are necessary:
Climate is the major factor, which specifies the growth. Therefore the specific amount of rainfall and temperature is required. These are two Major factors of climate.
It requires high temperature during the growing season of rice from 4 to 6 months. The temperature should be more than 26°C and in no way less than 21°C even for the quick maturing varieties.
Rice is a tropical crop, which thrives under high temperature, between 21°C to 38°C, while the average temperature of 21°C is best suitable for its vegetative growth.
Rainfall / Water
Rice is known as a plant of water and humid climate. An average rainfall of at least 45 inches till irrigation is required during vegetative growth of about 90 days. The crop does best under high rainfall high humidity. In areas of moderate rainfall, 20 to 40 inches irrigation becomes necessary.
Rice can be grown successfully on soils ranging from silt loam to clays. Alluvial soil is the most suitable soil for the growth of rice. Heavy clayey subsoil with water retaining capacity gives the best results.
The flooding of fields requires level land and therefore river valleys, deltas and coasted plains are suitable areas. The river plain and delta regions with fertile silt at the top arid and clay bed are recognized as the best fields.
Along with suitable physical conditions, high yields can only be obtained with the help of proper inputs and adopting the best Economic methods.
The Clay loam soils with fine texture are most suitable for rice plant. Therefore, river basins and deltas are best suited for cultivation. Rice plant needs a smooth surface with a gentle slop. Soil must be well prepared and converted into fine soil particles.
Skill and Cheap Labour
The skilled and cheap labor is a Major part of crops cultivation and its play a vital role in the yield production and through this source, production can be increased.
Seed Quality and Planting Time
In different planting methods, different amount of seed is required. In most of the Asian countries, rice growing is started in the nursery and after 30 to 40 days of germination, transplanted in a paddy. In this method, 4 to 5 kg seed for Basmati and 8 to 10 kg for Irri is required.
Method of Plantation & Processing
In this method, when nursery and fields are ready, Puddy fields are flooded with water and ploughed by tractors or bullocks and water and soil mixture is prepared and known as Kaddo.
Then nursery is transplanted in rows 8 to 10 inches apart. In this method, about 2 lakh plants are transplanted in one acre. The number of plants is the key indicator to achieve the maximum yield.
Selection of Seeds Varieties
The seed plays a vital role in the production of rice. On the other hand, selection of high yielding variety, resistant to pest and diseases and a locality is one of the ways of increasing the yield and production.
Rice needs fertile nutrient-rich soils. Therefore, for high and quality yields of rice balanced and in time use of fertilizers increase the yield more than 20%now, use of fertilizers has become very important for increasing production of Rice.
Safety of Crops
Being a tropical crop, many pests, weeds, diseases, and insects can hit rice crop, which causes more than 25% loss of crop, which lowers the yield. Therefore, by good management and use of herbicides, weeds must be eradicated.
The harvesting rice when the moisture content is about 18 to 22 percent is necessary for quality control. Now, most of the rice crop is harvested and thrashed at the same time by combine harvesters or hand methods.
Largest Rice Producing Countries in World
1: China Rice Production
China outranks all nations of the world in rice production. Different types of rice In China are growing in the regions located between 23° to 33° North Latitudes, occupying Southern and southeastern provinces. Heaviest acreage and production is obtained in the lower valleys of Yangtze and Si-Kiang rivers.
Chinese Rice Farms
The Szechwan province, the floodplain of Yangtze River basin, in the southwest Yunnan and Kweichow provinces, Fukian, Kwantung, Kwangsi provinces, provinces of Hunan, Kiangsi and Chekiang are main rice-farming regions in China.
China Rice Production
It produced about 187 million metric tons, which is about 30 percent of the world total rice production, this production was harvested from 29.5 million hectares.
2: India Rice Production
Rice is an important crop in India. Almost every state grows. About 23% of the total cropped area. The greatest concentrations of cultivation are in the floodplains, deltas, and coastal districts.
Indian Rice Production States
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world, the important rice-growing states of India are West Bengal, Tamal Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and Assam.
The rice harvested in India was 44 million hectares, while rice production was 141 million metric tons.
Indonesia is the third largest producer of rice in the world. Humid and hot climate, rich volcanic soils and intensive farming and growing seasons of rice made Indonesia as largest producer.
Two crops of Indonesian rice varieties are grown in one year taking advantage of both southwest and northeast monsoon.
According to statistical data, Indonesian rice grown production was 57 million metric tons, while the area was 12.1 million hectares. Java is the main island, where rice is grown; its two-third cultivated.
4: Bangladesh Rice Production
Bangladesh is the 4th largest producer in the world. The climatic and soil conditions are most suitable for the crop, but per hectare yield is quite low than international standards, this is due to primitive methods of cultivation but still, there are different types of rice grown there.
Most of the cultivated areas are lowlands a small quantity is grown in the uplands of Chittagong hill tracks of Dhaka, Mymen Singh, Farid pur and Rajshai region.
5: Vietnam Rice Production
Fertile alluvial soils of river basins and hot humid maritime climate and surplus labor force have created an excellent atmosphere for rice cultivation. Vietnam is the 5th largest producer of rice in the world.
The Red Basin in northern Vietnam and Mekong Valley of southern Vietnam are home of the rice farming. Its 7.3 million hectare area, while its production was 35.6 million metric tons.
6: Myanmar Rice
Myanmar produces surplus and exports sizeable amounts of rice. Monsoon climate of Myanmar is most suitable for rice cultivation. Myanmar is the 6th largest producer of rice in the world.
Its production of rice was 32.6 million metric tons and area under rice crop was 8.2 million hectares. Arakan coastal region, Tenasserim region and the river Irrawaddy delta provide fertile clayey soils.
7: Thailand Rice Production
Thailand is another important rice producer in southeastern monsoon region. It ranks 7th in rice production in the world for various types of rice grown in Thailand. Maritime monsoon climate, fertile soils of Menam basin, abundant labor, and domestic demand, has forced Thailand to produce bulks amounts. Thailand produced 27.8 million from 10.4 million hectares land.
8: Philippines Rice Production
Rice is a staple food crop of the Philippines, about half of the cultivated area is devoted to crop, which is more than 4.3 million hectares. More than 80% crop is paddy rice, only about 20% is upland rice.
In the Philippines, nearly all crops are grown on the western side of the mountain of Luzon and Central Plain region. Recently, rice production in the Philippines was 16.0 million metric tons. Maritime, monsoon climate, fertile soils, have created an ideal environment for the intensive crop, and 8th largest rice producer in the world.
Brazil outranks all other countries outside the monsoon Asia in rice hectare age. Brazil ranking 9th largest rice producer of the world produces about 3% output of the world.
Most of the Brazilian rice crop is grown in the southeastern region, where climatic and pedologic conditions are ideal for rice production in Brazil. The total is for cultivation is 2.9 million hectares and production is 11.0 million metric tons.
10: Japan Rice Production
It is the staple food crop of Japanese. Rice occupies 50% of the tilled land in Japan, which is about 1.7 million hectares. Total Japanese Rice Production was 10.9 million metric tons.
Rice is grown in coastal lowlands and hilly slopes. Kyusho and Shikoku produce two crops. Due to mechanization and agronomic skills, it’s per hectare yield is quite high.
Other Important Countries
Besides, U.S.A., Pakistan, Egypt, South Korea are the most important rice producers in the world, and Nepal, Cambodia, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Malaysia, Laos, Iran, Columbia, Peru, North Korea, Ecuador, Italy, Australia, Uruguay, and Cote-d-Ivoire are other important rice producing countries.