Today 91 countries of the world produce cotton. During 2007, total production of seed cotton in the world was 72.5 million metric tons and area under cotton crop was 33.8 million, hectares.
The continent of Asia ranks 1st in cotton production and area harvested, while North America ranks 2nd and Africa 3rd in cotton production. The continent of South America ranks 4th in cotton production, while Australia and Europe are not prominent in cotton production.
LARGEST COTTON PRODUCING COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
The following table indicates the important producers of cotton yarn and their production:
|Countries||Production (in lakh metric tons)||Percentage of world production|
These are top 10 Largest Producers of Cotton in the world
China outranks all nations in cotton output. China has a very long tradition of cotton growing of about 5,000 years, but per emergence as important cotton producing cotton nation is a comparatively recent phenomenon.
The principal areas of production lies between 29° to 35° north latitude in the fertile lower valleys of the Yangtze, Kiang and Hwang-Ho, Wei Valley of Shensi, The Central Hupei Basin. North China Plain, Yangtze Delta, Kiangsu Coast, South Central Szechwan Basin.
During 2007, China produced 22.87 million metric tons seed cotton, which was harvest from 5.4 million hectares area.
2: The United States of America
The U.S.A. ranks second in cotton production in the world. Till 1980 its position in cotton production was at the top. The U.S.A. exports about 40% of her output.
The southwest of Mississippi river enjoys the supremacy in cotton cultivation. The U.S. cotton belt stretches from northern Florida to North Carolina and westward of California. The states of Texas, Georgia, California, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, North Carolina, Alabama, Oklahoma and the Salt River Valley in Arizona are leading states for cotton cultivation.
In 2007 U.S.A. produced 12 million metric tons seed cotton, while area harvested was 4.3 million hectares. U.S.A. accounts for 20% of global output of seed cotton.
India has very long cotton growing history. It ranks third in seed cotton production in the world. In India, as a cash crop, cotton out ranks all other crops in value added and provides the most essential raw material for highly organized cotton textile industry. India accounts for about 10% of the global cotton output.
In India, leading cotton growing areas includes the states of Maharashtra, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. Gujrat is the largest producer of cotton and accounts for about 25% of the India’s output.
During 2007, India harvested 9.5 million metric tons seed cotton, from 9.3 million hectares.
Cotton is an important Kharif crop in Pakistan and after Wheat it occupies the 2nd largest area of all crops grown in Pakistan. It provides, raw material to cotton textile industry, while cotton seed accounts for 80% of the national oilseed production. Pakistan is fourth largest producer of cotton in the world.
In Pakistan, upper and lower Sindh (Punjab + Sindh) irrigated districts are main producers of cotton crop. The province of Punjab ranking first produces 78% cotton produced in Pakistan and the Southern Punjab is more important for cotton crop.
During 2007, Pakistan produced 6.5 million metric tons seed cotton and area under cotton crop was 3.3 million hectares.
In the continent of South America, Brazil is most important for cotton cultivation.
Today, in the southeast Sao Paulo, is most valuable cotton producing region. Potentially, Brazil is capable of competing for first place in the world.
During 2007, Brazil produced 3.9 million metric tons seed cotton and area harvested was 1.1 million hectares.
Until 1990 U.S.S.R. (Russia) was an outstanding country in cotton production and Uzbekistan was the hub of cotton production, this regions cotton output was 50% of total output of the U.S.S.R. Today, Uzbekistan ranks 6th in seed-cotton production.
During 2007, it produced 3.3 million metric tons seed cotton, while this output was harvested from 1.5 million hectares.
Due to continental climate, almost every cotton field requires irrigation. Uzbekistan has developed an excellent irrigation system. Uzbekistan is big exporter of lint.
During last two decades, Turkey has become an outstanding nation in cotton production in the world. Today, it is 7th largest seed cotton producer in the world.
The Mediterranean climate is most suitable for cotton crop, therefore Adana, Azmir and Central Anatolian plateau regions are main cotton producers.
During, 2007, Turkey produced 2.5 million metric tons cotton and area under cotton crop was 735 thousand hectares.
Syria has become an important cotton producer and is 8th largest cotton producer in the world. Mediterranean, continental climate is best suitable for cotton crop.
In Syria, cotton is cultivated in plain central region with the help of irrigation. Syria exports bulk of its output in the international market and ranking 9th in the world.
During 2007, Syria produced 1.1 million metric tons seed cotton and area harvested was 250 thousand hectares.
Greece has emerged on important cotton producer and is outstanding cotton producing country in the continent of Europe.
More than 75% land surface of Greece is occupied by Massif Mountains; therefore small river basins are available for cultivation. On the other hand Mediterranean dry climate is most suitable for cotton crop. River Axios basin is most important for cotton crop cultivation.
During 2007, Greece produced more than one million metric tons seed cotton, this production was harvested from 300 thousand hectares.
In the Central Asian region, after Uzbekistan, another important cotton producer is Turkmenistan. It is 10th largest cotton producer in the world. Due to continental climatic conditions, cotton cultivation is not possible without irrigation. But Turkmenistan has developed an excellent irrigation system.
The Burkina Faso, Australia, Egypt, Nigeria, Mexico, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Benin, Cameroon, Cote-d-Ivoire, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mali, Paraguay, Tajikistan, Uganda and Zimbabwe are important cotton producing nations.
During 2007, Turkmenistan produced more than 0.94 million metric tons cotton, while area under cotton crop was 642 thousand hectares.