Today, most companies hire candidates who specialize in a particular field. This allows the organization to put that person to the best use for the company’s progress. Job specialization is not a new concept. People have always been working in their field of expertise. However, now companies invest in grooming and specializing the employees to the fullest in a particular area.
Though job specialization helps organizations to grow, there are various advantages and disadvantages of job specialization. We have put them together in this article to help make the right decision.
Let’s have a look at them.
What is Job Specialization?
Monash defines job specialization as the process of focusing one’s occupational concentration on a specific area of expertise.
Job specialization refers to improving your expertise and skills in a particular domain. It allows the employees to become masters of their craft and provides more skilled workers to the company. Specialized employees working in a department can handle tasks more efficiently and conveniently than others.
Job specialization requires training and experience. Though, the workers become adept at their tasks eventually. It reduces the period of resolving a complicated task and gives you a mastered force. Whereas, sometimes, the work can be monotonous and tiring for the workers. The pros and cons of job specialization are as follows.
Advantages of Job Specialization
One of the most significant advantages of job specialization is improved productivity. Dividing the jobs between workers according to their specialization allows them to work fast. A professional understanding a particular subject in detail can find a better way of performing the task than others.
For example, an unspecialized person will need to research the problem from scratch to find a solution. On the other hand, a specialized person already understands the issue. It enables them to solve the problem steadily.
When a person performs the same task repeatedly for an extended period, they are less likely to make mistakes. They may also assess risks beforehand to avoid loss of resources. One example of this advantage of job specialization is someone who manages accounts. Someone who has taken education in finance and has been working in the department for years would be better at it. Conversely, a person with a degree in marketing might not be the best fit for the job.
Doing something every day makes employees good at their job, and they take less time to perform the function. At the same time, the non-specialized workforce will take more time to understand the task and act accordingly. That is why companies invest in workshops to improve the skills of their workers. They help improve production in less time.
Less Supervision Need
When a set of experienced experts in the same domain work together, the company trusts them more. They do not require extensive direction and supervision. Choosing the right person for the right task through job specialization gives them the liberty to work independently.
Lesser risks and improved productivity eventually reduce the cost. It helps minimize wastage and diminishes the costs of covering mistakes. Job specialization helps you in the long run by recruiting the right people for the task that proves beneficial for the company.
While specialization proves favorable to the organization, both the advantages and disadvantages of job specialization are crucial. Let’s talk about the disadvantages of job specialization.
Disadvantages of Job Specialization
Performing the same tasks every day can become monotonous, and the workers might feel drained. While job specialization improves productivity, sometimes monotony may decrease it. Tedious work for a long period tires mentally and physically.
When employees of a particular department are adept at one kind of job only, they are more dependent on others. They cannot sort out other issues that do not fall in your domain. Thus, some tasks may face a delay in the absence of workers with a different specialty.
Specialized professionals are also inflexible and may not sometimes prove beneficial for a company. Let’s say that a company focuses on job specialization. They might face difficulties when they have to cut down the number of employees as specialized employees cannot fit well in other departments.
Less Job Satisfaction
The same environment and tasks regularly can be quite boring. The workers may sometimes need a break from their daily tasks, or it can lead to less job dissatisfaction. If they continue to work for a long time without a break, they might think about shifting to another job.
Employees in an office like a harmonious environment and interact with other people. Sometimes, specialized jobs restrict you to an area away from other workers and disconnect from the rest of the process. Isolation also causes an increase in frustration among employees.
Job dissatisfaction may lead to a higher turnover rate, increasing the demand for more recruitments. When recruiting specialized persons, you may also have to pay them higher for their expertise. Moreover, arranging interactive activities for isolated employees adds to the organizational budget.
The Bottom Line
Job specialization is being widely adopted in organizations to have the experts on board. However, the advantages and disadvantages of job specialization go hand in hand. While it improves productivity, it may also tire the workers mentally and physically. On the one hand, it reduces the need for supervision. On the other hand, job specialization may isolate some of the employees. It often reduces costs owing to enhanced production. Yet, it may sometimes increase the costs of recruitment.
Matthew is a Co-Founder at BusinessFinanceArticles.org. Matthew was a floor manager at a local restaurant in Wales. He lost his job after the pandemic and took initiative to make a team and start the project.