The term “finance” is associated with revenue and expenditure. Public finance is a branch of Economics which deals with the government’s revenue and expenditures of an economy. If it is related to the private sector, it is called private finance.
Finance includes those means by which we make various types of payment. It may be defined as the provision of money at the time of need. In other words, it is the arrangement of money sources and the acquisition of funds for the satisfactory conduct of business activities.
Finance consists of providing and utilizing the money, capital rights, credit and funds of any kind which are employed in the operation of an enterprise.George Terry
It may thus refer to investing in borrowing and spending of money with proper manners for the operation of the business.
Finance is important and essential for the success of any enterprise. Without proper finance, no business can be run smoothly. So a sufficient amount of capital must be provided in order to achieve desired results from the activities.
Sources of Business Funds
Balance Sheet represents the amount which is supplied by the contributors. Assets are shown on the right-hand side of the balance sheet which refers to the use of funds. Liabilities are on the left side of the balance sheet which shows the sources of funds. These funds are employed temporarily by the creditors and are expected ultimately to be paid back with the sum they have advanced to the business. But owners make a permanent investment of funds to the business.
This source of loan is obtained for short term intermediate and long period. The repayment of this loan is made on an instalment basis if it is more than one year. Creditor’s fund is generally grouped into the following main titles on the liabilities side of the Balance sheet.
This is the result of the supply of goods services to the customers. No credit document is used in this kind of credit dealings.
It arises from the sale of goods, the supply of services or loan of funds from the financial institution. It is represented by a written document i.e. promissory note etc.
Large size firm may issue the secured or unsecured bonds or promissory notes when various term funds are required. It is divided up among a number of creditors. Each creditor holds written evidence or promises to pay for his share of the loan on a future date.
It represents that the firm has accepted a loan from the commercial bank or investment bank for a long period of time against the security of building, land and machinery.
It refers to the accumulation of indebtedness amount up to the date of the closing books. These generally include the items which have accrued to but have not been actually paid. They represent accumulating wages, rent, salaries, interest and taxes which are found on the liabilities side of1he Balance sheet.
The owner’s investment appears in the Balance sheet by various heads in various forms of Business Organization.
The invested amount by the owner may be increased by profit and decreased by losses and withdrawal. The owner’s interest in a sole tradership generally finds a single title in the Balance sheet.
Owner’s interests are generally considered similar to the sole traders in Partnership. But in the partnership, the profit is distributed among the number of partners and if there is any loss, the same partners are to bear it. Therefore the owner’s interest in the partnership is not constant but it may increase or decrease at a rate varying with the profit or loss of the firm.
Differences Between Public & Private Finance
Private: It deals with revenue and expenditure of private sector.
Public: It deals with revenue and expenditure of the government sector (public sector)
Public finance is related to one year time period whereas private finance is concerned with daily, weekly and monthly budget, etc.
Income vs Expenditure
In public, revenue follows expenditure. On the other hand, in private finance expenditure follows revenue.
In the case of the deficit budget, Govt. can issue new notes. On the other hand, the private sector has no authority to issue new notes.
Nature of Budget
In the public sector, the deficit budget is appreciable. In the private sector, the surplus budget is appreciable.
The government can take compulsory loans from different financial institutions to meet its expenditure whereas the private sector cannot do it.
A government budget is no more secret, rather Govt. publicizes its budget through T.V, Radio, etc. On the other hand, the private budget is tried to be kept secret.
Nature of Projects
In public finance, Government has to complete long term projects. On the other hand, the private sector has a short terms project to complete.
Nature of changes
Public finance is concerned with remarkable changes whereas the private sector is concerned with minor changes.
Public budget is a written document whereas the private budget is not a written document.
Govt. revenue and expenditure is regularly checked by an audit system. On the other hand, there is no audit system in private finance.
The Government can depend upon foreign assistance but in private finance, there is no chance of any foreign aid.
Direct or Indirect Source of Income
In public finance, the source of income is indirect i.e., various taxes whereas in private finance source of income is direct.
Govt. takes prior sanction from its cabinet, national assembly, senate, etc whereas, no prior sanction is required from any authority.
There is long term planning while in private finance short term planning is the motive.
Use of Financial Resources
In public, the main objective is the social welfare of the people whereas, in private resources are used just for maximum personal satisfaction.
Record of Finance
The private may or may not keep the record of its finance whereas Govt. keeps the permanent record of its finance.
We can conclude that the finance of both the private and public sectors is concerned with revenue and expenditures. Anyhow, we can differentiate private and public finance on the basis of certain grounds.