The Word Cotton comes from the Arabic word “al-qutn” is a member of the Malvaceae family of flowering plants that includes hibiscus, Pavonia and mallow plants. It is a white fibrous agricultural product; its an example of a primary economic activity that has a wide variety of uses, from textile production to creating paper, to producing oil and food products. It is grown all around the globe and is traded internationally as well the international trade in cotton is led by the United States and the African nations and totals more than $12 billion annually.
There are many types of industries in the world but the Cottage industry is very famous at the local and international level. The cottage industry is an industry, mainly manufacturing, which involves many producers working part times from their homes. The term was initially used to refer to workers who were engaged in tasks like lace making, sewing or household manufacturing.
The cultivation appears to have begun in present-day Pakistan approximately 6,000 years ago. The Harappa civilization of the Indus River Valley exported cotton fabrics to the early Semitic peoples of the Middle East as well as the Egyptians starting around 3000 B.C.E.; from there, made its way into Nubia, Meroe and the interior of Africa.
Similar cultivation apparently took place in the Americas independently, albeit later: the ancient Peruvian Moche and Nazca civilizations, which flourished as Rome was declining in Europe, made extensive use of cotton fabric.
Factors for Cotton Textile Industry Development
These Physical and Socio-Economic factors are responsible for the location and development..
The initial factors such as
- Raw material
- Energy resources
- Water availability
- Availability of Market 6: Location Factor
- Sufficient amount of Capital
- Skill Labor Force
- Government Patronage
- Government Policy for Industrial Development
- Means of Transportation
- Industrial Solid Waste Management
Types of Cotton
More specifically, cotton is classified with a genus of tropical and subtropical shrubs known as Gossypium.
There four commercial species of cotton, the most common are:
- Gossypium Hirsutum, (A variety native to Mesoamerica, Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean)
- Arboreum or “tree cotton,” (It grows in India and Pakistan)
- Barbadebse or “Creole,” or “Egyptian” cotton, (A South American variety)
- Herbaceum or “Levantine” cotton (Native to southern Africa and the Middle East)
Top 10 Cotton Textile Industries in the World
Although the cotton textile industry is widespread, only 40 countries manufacture at large scale and export it in the international market. Among these countries, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Mexico, United States, Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippine, Syria, Thailand and Turkey are most important in cotton textile manufacturing.
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest cottage industry in China. Industrial development took place after the Communist Revolution 1949. Now the large enterprises are the backbone of the Chinese cotton textile industry.
The Yangtze River valley, Tienshan, Shantung, Shanghai and Kaiteng rectangle manufacture more than 55% cotton textile of China.
The cotton textile industry in India was most firmly rooted before the modern machine industry beginning in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Calcutta but real success was the first mill established at Bombay in 1851.
3: United States of America
Textile Industry in the US is one of the front-runners among manufacturing countries. The first cotton textile mill was established within Rhode Island in 1790.
The belt of plains and hills between the Appalachian Mountains and Atlantic possesses 85% cotton spindles and produces 75% of U.S.
4: Russian Federation
Russia is an important cotton textile manufacturing country in the world. Before Revolution, the first mill was established at Ivanove, near Moscow.
5: United Kingdom
Textile Industry in the UK started after the industrial revolution. During the 18th and 19th centuries, industry attained such a high fame that the country became the undisputed king of the cotton textile industry.
First cotton textile industry in Japan was established in 1868 in the vicinity of South Kyushu. By the middle of the 20th century, Japan became one of the largest producing nations. Japan import raw material from the U.S.A., China, and India.
Cotton textile industry Brazil began in 1860 at Bahia and cotton growing region. Abdunt raw material, large domestic market and cheap hydel powder have boasted in Brazil.
Cotton Textile industry in Pakistan could be termed as the ‘backbone’ of Pakistan’s economy. It is the largest and greatest source of foreign exchange earnings. The spinning sector is one of the most important sectors. After independence, first Valika Cotton Textile Mill was established at Karachi in 1948.
Karachi is now center of industry, while Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Sheikhpura, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Okara, Khairpur, Jhang, and Gujranwala are other cotton textile manufacturing centers. It is composed of more than 444 textile mills and with an installed capacity of 146 thousand rotors and 8.6 million spindles.
Other Countries of the World with Textile Factories
Mexico, Egypt, Germany, France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Iran, South Korea, Thailand, and Turkey are some other prominent countries in the cotton textile industry.
China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, U.S.A. are the most important countries, which export cotton textile and ready-made garments.