Nature is diversified, so the humans too. Humans tried to be economically prosperous by using different art and tricks of business. In ancient times they use to adopt hunting, fishing and by farming and crops to survive economically. They often use barter system in this regard. When there are prosperous times in economy & business so does depression/recession exit also, whether look at the lives of humans in 11th century or whether of today we find business cycle in every era.
In all Phases of Business Cycle, businesses face different things. Sometimes they are busy and making hundreds of dollars and sometimes spending from capital. All the phases are backed by factors affecting
Causes of Business Cycle
There are two types of factors affecting business cycle, 1) Internal Causes and 2) External Causes. Combination of both or any of the parent or child cause may effect.
Internal Causes of Business Cycle
Business cycle are also caused by psychological causes. In business circle two school of thoughts exists. Optimistic & Pessimistic psychology of entrepreneurs. Optimistic thinking towards business and development brings more employment, profit, demand and boom in national economy. Pessimistic psychology relates to negativity about business investment which brings unemployment, loss in business, and less demand of products.
A business cycle always occurs when the rate of capital go down. Similarly boost up in economy can be measured when rate to capital goes up.
Another factor which causes business cycle is the interest rate for business loans. When a heavy interest rate is introduced by banks ultimately it creates hurdle in economic peak.
Lack of Investments
During the phase of depression and trough lack of investments towards business can be observed. The same situation can be seen in wars, national disasters and climate changes in a country. When there is a less investment in business ultimately can be the result.
Public Demand and Supply
In economic prosperity phase a balance between demand and supply can be monitored. Business cycle arises when there is a less demand of products from public and excessive supply is available. If there is more demand and less supply from producers it also causes inflation.
External Causes of Business Cycle
Economical cycle can also appears due to political change in a country. By the change of government, new leadership plan and implemented new policies best suited to their interest and usually avoid the continue plans of the x government. This change caused a great set back for national economy as well as loss of money and honor at international level. This practice can be observed in U.S.A, India as well as in Pakistan. After the end of tenure of PPP in 2013, newly elected government avoid many existing plans of the x government, same case is with India & United States.
Wars are also an important factor of business cycle. During War times most of the national revenue is used in the manufacturing and purchasing of weapons, and war materials. That’s why wars are called freezing times for the economy of any nation. They throw a nation back to 10 years of its economy.
Post War Rehabilitation
After wars it mat take 10/15 years for a country to rise up again economically. In first and second world wars participating countries like USA, UK, RUSSIA, TURKEY, GERMANY, ITALY, SPAIN, CHINA, AUSTRIA, HUNGARY, FRANCE wars caused a great loss to industry, agriculture, transportation, housing and humans too. After the war years a nation has to rehabilitate itself by using its available economical resources. In these situations national economy is overlooked and to rehabilitate the country becomes the utmost priority of government which caused a set back to national economy.
Natural Calamities like Floods, Earthquake, droughts and hurricanes also caused a national economy to go down. A nation may face agriculture destruction or loss in production in floods, destruction of business and infrastructure in earthquakes and may have to spent more on importing the eatables in drought phases.
Natural calamities takes a long time to cover up from. They may also caused business cycle of recession or depression due to much expenditure on rehabilitation.
New Trends in Business
Due to the rapid and new trends in international market a nation may face business cycle. The era of 1990-2017 can be viewed as an example to check and analyze the advancements in the field of Mobile Phones and Information Technology. By the changing of business market and trends users also change their lifestyle as per the modern trends.
With the arrival of new trends in business no one can not overlook the current demand of time, they has to pay and invest in that specific new market so as to met the needs of global economical trends. This new investment can also be the cause of depression for a national economy.
The business cycle can also be seen in the countries having rapid expansion in population. Due to the increase in population it becomes almost impossible for a government to provide the basic necessities to the citizens. When there is an immense increase in population, ultimately demand of edibles, clothes and housing arises. Countries like Pakistan and India can be the example, where majority is living their below the average, unemployed or working on lowest wages, living on roads, have no food to eat not even the basic medical and educational facilities. In this situation economy has to bear a difficult time to rise up again.
Weather & Climate Changes
Trade Cycle can also occurs due to the change of weather or climate in different parts of the world. Agricultural countries like Pakistan can be the victim of business cycle due to the sudden changes in weather. If heavy and unexpected rainy season starts in summer, ultimately it will be result in low wheat production. Economy of Pakistan rely on agriculture which has 70% share in economy.
In contrast to summer in Pakistan, winter season is called recession/ depression phase in Europe because due to the worst season business get a set back, labors effected the most, they are fired or are offered limited jobs in that times in lieu of low wages. Supply of raw material to businesses got late due to the odds of weather and transportation issues.